Articles - year 2015

Dilemmas of protection of valuable grasslands on agricultural land

The Common Agricultural Policy of the EU reflects the increasing need for mitigating the negative impacts of farming on the environment. Agri-environmental-climatic schemes of the Rural Development Programme consist in financial compensation for losses caused by environmentally-friendly farming (limiting the supply of nutrients, postponed harvest, reducing the use of pesticides, etc.). This motivates farmers to such behaviour externally, which leads to a stronger internal motivation, e.g. to knowledge of the purpose and to trust in the aims of agri-environmental support. The preparation of regulations for agri-environmental-climatic schemes for 2014–2020 took nearly five years, during which dozens of analyses and work meetings, consultations and hundreds of calculations were made. Despite all efforts, several dilemmas on a societal level remain determining the final effects on biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes. The paper focuses on identifying the main barriers in effectively implementing the EU policy and explains their origin and effects. It also explores the possibilities of overcoming these barriers, including e.g. lack of funding of the targeted treatment of all valuable grasslands, the impossibility of recovery of traditional farming methods, gaps in the knowledge of causal links between human intervention and effects on nature and landscape, lack of trust in the purpose of the policy, lack of skills in acquiring consent, etc. There are several promising ways to further improve the agri-environmental policy regarding to the identified barriers. Improvement of the capacity of stakeholders to reach agreement on implementation of the policy has a great potential especially in increasing internal motivation to participate in agri-environmental-climatic schemes.

Pražan, J., Čámská, K.

Zprávy Čes. Bot. Spol., Praha, 50, Mater. 26: p. 101-114, 2015, ISSN 1212-3323

The magazine is on the website here.

 

Changes in the Cost Structure of Hogs Feeding in the Czech Republic

Modern hog breeding has a long tradition in the Czech Republic it is the stable branch of livestock production. Its main task is to produce high quality pork meat, which must meet all requirements of the processors and the final consumer. Pork meat occupies for decades in Czech Republic first place in consumption per one inhabitant (per year) and it forms more than 50% of the total annual meat consumption. This branch also plays an important role for producers of cereals, which largely contributes to the overall size and stability of the agricultural sector. The increasing imports were the main reason why many Czech hog breeding farms has been reduced or completely eliminated. Reducing numbers of pigs in the last decade is a reflection of supply and demand for pigs. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the changes in the cost structure for fattening of hogs and indicate how these changes are reflected in the competitiveness of Czech agriculture enterprises. Choice of optimal strategy of breeding and hog feeding already affects not only the requirements of food security, requirements of quality and affordability. Currently are also very important requirements for animal welfare and environmental protection with an emphasis on the sustainability of production and high hygiene standards. These measures require high investments and operational costs are reflected in the worsening economy of pork meat production.

Tamáš, V., Peterková, J.

Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 2015, 152, Vol. 63 (2015), Issue 4, p. 1387-1393

The article is reproduced here.

 

Images of a good village: a visual analysis of the rural idyll in the "Village of the year" competition in the Czech Republic

This paper presents a sociological analysis of the image of a "good village", as portrayed in the annual Czech competition Village of the year. It focuses on the positive representations attached to the rural in the political and expert discourse. The analysis is rooted in cultural rural sociology and in its study of rural idyll. It is argued that a specific kind of rural idyll is produced in the competition. This idyll is analysed using the photographs submitted to the competition by the villages themselves. A combination of visual methods is employed to uncover the positive values attached to the images. The results show that activity and social life play a key role in the image of a "good village" thus produced. On the other hand, there are virtually no references to agriculture.

Pospěch, P., Spěšná, D. & Staveník, A.

European Countryside, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 68-86, ISSN 1803-8417.

The magazine is on the website here.

 

Public Support of Agricultural Risk Management – Situation and Prospects

The aim of the article is to evaluate the development of risk management support in agriculture in the Czech Republic in the period 2001-2013.
The article also tries to outline some possibilities for the future risk management scheme in the Czech Republic. Data provided by the Support and Guarantee Agricultural and Forestry Fund (PGRLF) and the Czech Insurance Association (ČAP) was described using descriptive statistical methods (mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation). The data sources for international comparison come from secondary sources made by the research centres for European Commission. Authors identify that risk management support in the Czech Republic after 2014 will not use EU funds from the Rural Development Programme. It will depend on national financial sources, either in the form of direct support (premium subsidies, ad hoc aids) or indirect support of prevention (disease fund, recovery fund). In order to eliminate unexpected need for ad hoc aid, it is highly desirable to establish and continuously contribute a fund for covering catastrophic risks which cannot be managed by farmers or insurance companies. Such fund should be eligible only for those applicants who continuously take risk management measures.

Vilhelm,V., Špička, J., Valder, A.

Agris on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, Vol. VII (2015), no. 2, p. 93-102, ISSN 1804-1930

The article is reproduced here.

 

The development of agricultural land market in the Czech Republic and the business structure of the Czech agriculture

This article deals with the agriculture land market development in the Czech Republic. It shows the basic overview of the agriculture land sales and rental prices in the context of different types of market subjects. Up to 2012 the state ownership of the agriculture land formed prevailing part of the market offer. State agriculture land has been transferred to the private ownership by the Land fund of the Czech Republic. Because this process is actually almost finished, the private market subjects dominate the agricultural land market. Amount of the traded agricultural land in the Czech Republic, is stable in the long term. Annually over 100 thousand hectares of the agricultural land has been transferred among private subjects between 2003 and 2012. There was a minor decrease of the transferred agricultural land areas after 2013. This decrease is related with decreasing offer of the state agricultural land for private subjects. There is not any regular national survey of the agricultural land in the Czech Republic, to analyse the dynamics of the agriculture land market prices. In 2010 it was designed the sample monitoring system of the agriculture land contract prices in 5 districts of the country. For that analysis the final contract prices must be obtain. Observed agricultural land prices were around 12 CZK/m2 on the average in 2014 and at long-term the growing trend was founded. In the case of comparing land prices of individual districts of the country the results are variable between 5-25 CZK/m2. The rent costs of agriculture land per hectare increased up to 2013 twice in comparison with agriculture land price. This growth is only partly related to new owners’ obligation to pay land tax for land parcels recorded in a digitized cadastre. For the agriculture land management in the Czech Republic is typical dual holding structure. There are about 1% of the subjects, whose size exceeding 100 ha of the agriculture land for each in total utilising 85% share of the whole agriculture land in Czech Republic. Share of the owned land in the total used land is constantly growing by Czech agricultural entities of all kinds.

Hruška M., Vilhelm V.

Ekonomika poľnohospodárstva, Vol. XV. 4/2015, s. 4-23, ISSN 1338-6336

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Apprentice education in the meat processing industry – the vocational schools’ point of view

The aim of this article is to analyse the current apprentice education in the Czech meat processing industry from the vocational schools’ point of view and to evaluate potential opportunities or risks for the meat processing industry. Primary research was based on a survey of representatives of vocational schools. From the 24 surveyed It can be considered as sufficient to formulate the conclusions. The survey was distributed online in the first half of April 2015. The questionnaire was evaluated by descriptive analysis of absolute and relative frequencies of answers. The results show a low interest of young people to be a butcher. On the other hand, vocational schools see increasing interest from the practice of qualified labour in the branch. The pupils, who successfully complete their study, do not have usually problems to find good job in the branch. The missed opportunity is collaboration between professional associations and gilds, through cooperation in theoretical and practical education as well as in school presentation. The research identified following main reasons of low demand of the young people for the branch –physical demand related to the butcher practise, the pupils prefer study with graduation before vocational certificate, the change of perceiving butchers’ status in the society.

Špička, J., Náglová, Z.

MASO, Vol. XXVI (2015), Issue 5, p. 32–37, ISSN 1210-4086

The magazine is on the website here.

 

Structure and economics of manufacture of food products

The article deals with the structural and economic indicators of enterprises of manufacture of food products CZ-NACE 10 by production branch as well as by company size - small, medium and large from 2010 to 2014. Data for the latest year are additional count of the Ministry of Industry and Trade.
The first part of the article documenting the baseline and shares of small, medium and large enterprises in the European Union (EU) on these indicators. These data are compared with the Czech Republic (CR). It follows a more detailed development of structural indicators in the Czech Republic according to individual branches including economics.
Size segmentation is based on the CSO methodology. Small businesses are businesses employing up to 49 people, medium employ 50 to 249 people and large companies have more than 250 employees. In protection of individual data do not include the total number of large enterprises and in the field of processing and preserving of fish, crustaceans and molluscs, stated category of Small and medium enterprises in total.
Pivotal in the food industry is manufacture of food products where there is a total of 7 477 small and medium enterprises (7 154 small and 323 medium). In the manufacture of beverages 1211 46 small and medium-sized enterprises. In small enterprises manufacturing food products in 2014 employed a total of 23 823 people in the medium 31 817 people.

Náglová, Z., Mezera, J.

Potravinářská revue, 2015, Issue 6, p. 66–71, ISSN 1801-9102

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Competitiveness and economic performance of primary production of agricultural products and food industry

The article deals with the Czech agriculture and food industry and is divided into two parts. The first deals with the competitiveness of the Czech agriculture and the second part focuses on the economic performance of the Czech food industry. The aim of this article is to evaluate the importance of selected plant and animal commodities by analysing the selected indicators - self-sufficiency and RCA index including also the development of production, consumption, agricultural producer prices and agricultural foreign trade between the years 2007-2014. Next aim of the paper is to evaluate the structure of the Czech food industry and the development of key economic indicators over the time and also to determine the position and significance of each branch in the Czech food industry. According to the results, we can see the decreasing position of livestock production and focusing on economic effective commodities. Negative phenomenon of Czech agricultural trade is the export orientation to products with lower added value. The dominant branches in food sectors are CZ- NACE 10.1 Processing and preserving of meat and production of meat products, 10.7 Manufacture of bakery and farinaceous products and 10.8 Manufacture of other food products. We can find the most number of enterprises there from the whole food industry, these branches are also the biggest employers and they significantly contribute to sales in the food branch. However, there appears the decrease in the number of employees; labour productivity is also very low. Given that this is the fundamental fields of Czech food industry, it is necessary to improve their performance and effectively utilize investments in order to improve the assessment of agrarian production.

Náglová, Z., Menzlová, J., Bošková, I., Špička, J., Mezera, J.

Economics of Agriculture, Volume XV, 2015, Issue 4, p. 45–63, ISSN 1338-6336

The magazine is on the website here.

 

Model AGRO-2014 and problem discrimination of Czech food producers

Czech farmers are convinced that domestic food producers are discriminated against foreign producers on the Czech markets. The main argument is that market prices of the Czech food products are higher than the prices of comparable food products from abroad with respect to ownership of the foreign capital. It was necessary to determine whether and how differ trade margins for the domestic and import products. The Czech margins were calculated as the share of the domestic food prices (DP) on the consumer prices (CP) and import margins as the share of the imported food prices (IP) on CP. For these calculations the model AGRO-2014 was used. It is a mathematical model of the agrarian sector which is going out from agricultural production, over processing of agricultural raw materials on food, distribution to stores and subsequent consumption. Calculation of margins for the consumer basket includes such food groups for which there exist all kinds of prices. For that "market basket" there was calculated total "fictitious" sum of the entries in the DP, IP and CP. The results show that the average margin for the Czech food was 35.5 %, while filling the "market basket" only for the imported food resulted to the average margin 34.9 %.

Foltýn, I., Štiková, O., Mrhálková, I.

Proceedings of „Agrarian Perspectives XXIV. – Global Agribusiness and Rural Economy“. International Scientific Conference, 2015, p. 126-134, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Economics and Management © 2015, ISBN 978-80-213-2581-4; ISSN 2464-4781 (Online); ISSN 1213-7960 (Print); ISSN 1213-7979 (CD-ROM)

Proceedings of „Agrarian Perspectives XXIV. – Global Agribusiness and Rural Economy“ is here.

 

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